Optical Optical Transceivers by Gigalight

What Can Pluggable Optical Transceivers Do in Data Centers

For data centers, fiber-optic technology is no longer an option, or is only used to solve the most difficult interconnection problems. Today, high broadband, high port density and fiber optic technology are needed to solve low power requirements, and the current optical fiber technology is a kind of batch production technology, low cost, and is widely used in various applications such as switches interconnect and server interface. And in this post, Gigalight will introduce what pluggable optical transceivers can do in data center in detail.

1. Extend Data Center Distance

From 100Mb/s to 100Gb/s, single-channel 25G Ethernet optical transceivers lead the optical transceiver market of next-generation servers and switches. 40G QSFP+ products can support transmission distances up to 300m over multimode optical fibers, which greatly exceeds the standard distance of IEEE 40G Ethernet. In the 40G QSFP+ that transmits on single-mode fiber, and the 10 GSFP+ product that transmits 80 km, our OIF module or CFP2-ACO module supports a transmission distance of 500km or more for data center metro or intercity connectivity.

2. Increase Density and Reduce Power Consumption

Our products are at the leading edge of the next generation of low-power optical transceiver products. The 100G QSFP28 optical transceivers (SR4, LR, CWDM4, and SDWM4) have a maximum power consumption of only 3.5W. The 40G and 100G Quad wire active fiber optic products have power settings that can be flexibly configured by the host system.

3. Deploy with Existing Multimode Fiber

Most data centers today are still based on the 10G Ethernet architecture and use 10Gbase-SR short-haul transmission over OM3/OM4 duplex multimode fiber. With the data center upgrading from 10G to 40G or even 100G, customers still want to retain the existing multi-mode fiber architecture. However, SR4 optical transceivers need to be connected with ribbon multimode optical cables (multi-core) on the interface, and LR4 optical transceivers need to be double. Single-mode fiber, both of which are not present in the data center of currently deployed duplex multimode fiber, QSFP+ LM4 modules allow customers to implement 40 links over existing duplex multimode fiber, SWDM4 modules for customers in the the existing affordable dual-mode multimode fiber architecture enables 40G and 100G Ethernet transmission solutions.

4. from 100G to 200G/400G

Since 2010, the 100G Ethernet optical transceiver has been in a leading position in the market, supplying a large number of CFP optical transceivers for the operator’s routers and transmission systems. Since then, we have continued to expand 100G products and developed and supplied CFP2, CFP4, Modules such as CXP and 100G QSFP28 should be widely used in telecommunication, emerging data centers, and 100G systems in enterprise networks. However, we have not stopped our steps. At present, we are actively leading the development of industry standards and the development of next-generation Ethernet products, including 200G and 400G-rate products that will meet the long-term technical requirements for future high-performance data centers.

Three Trends to Drive 100G Ethernet Development

The Ethernet market has seen tremendous growth over the past few years. Accelerating the transmission speed and expanding the capacity of the data center will help promote this trend. According to the IHS Infonetics report, by 2019, 100 Gigabits per second 100G Ethernet will account for more than 50% of the data center fiber transceiver market. As 100G chips are being put into production, the market for 100G Ethernet is accelerating. In this article Gigalight will analyze the three major trends driving the development of the 100G Ethernet market.

1. Data Center Architecture and Traffic Changes

At present, the transmission technology of the optical fiber industry reaches gigabits per second (10G) and 40 gigabits per second (40G), which has been a long time. These technologies are effective and most people have no objection to this. For most users, the 40G transmission speed is more than enough. The problem of data transmission in the data center becomes obvious. The scale and traffic of Internet content providers and companies on cloud data will continue to grow.

Cisco Systems predicts that global data center Internet Protocol (IP) traffic will grow at a 31% annual rate over the next five years. Changes in the way people use the Internet have contributed to this growth. The amount of data in cloud computing is getting larger and larger, and more and more data are being accessed by mobile devices in the world to access video social media content.

The construction of data centers is increasing, which requires a better data management solution. Influx of traffic has led to changes in the way three-tier networks and other ways of changing the flow of information through the data center (that is, the user interface, data processor, and database management system combined). Newer technologies allow parallel processing and can transfer more data. The Internet is becoming more and more complex and websites need more interconnections. The architecture of the data center is changing, focusing more on integrating nodes and increasing bandwidth speed. It is clear that 100G will become the new standard for higher bandwidth and smarter data center architectures.

2. 10G Can’t Meet the Growing Demand for Corporate Networks

Some large data centers have switched. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute recently switched to 100G technologies, delivered through the Brocade MLXE router. The data center includes 56 11G ports, all equipped, and its efficiency has reached the highest priority of the switch. Traditionally, data centers will rely on 10G multi-beam transmissions that require link aggregation and lead to sub-optimal and inefficient load balancing.

This is where 100G comes into play. It frees up space, minimizes data aggregation, and significantly increases overall efficiency. As companies continue to grow in size and data needs become more complex, 100G will provide them with the bandwidth speed and efficiency they desperately need. Companies with four or five 10G ports have witnessed their database growth and may find switching to more affordable and scalable 100G ports. Of course, this is driven by costs and the resources of the company.

3. The Continuous Development of CMOS Technology Will Make 100G Become Mainstreams

With the evolution of 10G technology, before 100G technology becomes mainstream, which requires a certain amount of time to develop transceiver technology. When it is adopted, it is expensive and requires a lot of power. Over time, advances in chip technology have reduced more costs and various energy-saving technologies have emerged. This is exactly the reason that 100G technologies wins in the market, and the adoption of CMOS technology makes it an industry standard. Because using CMOS architecture will make it faster and use less power at the same time.

Once the technology is mature, the 100G system architecture can save more power and provide up to 10 times the speed. Currently, Cisco and Brocade Communications Systems sell 100G switches and routers at the enterprise level. However, the average cost per port of the switch is 2,500 US dollars, which means that companies using 100G networks will have to pay a lot of money. However, with the development of CMOS technology, creating these systems will become easier and more economical. These systems will reduce costs, reduce data center size and power requirements, and make 100G applications mainstream.

About Gigalight:

Gigalight is a design innovator in global optical interconnect field. A series of optical interconnect products include: optical transceivers, passive optical components, active optical cables, GIGAC MTP/MPO cabling, cloud programmers & checkers, etc. Three applications are mainly covered: Data Center & Cloud Computing, MAN & Broadcast Video, and Mobile Network & 5G Optical Transmission. Gigalight takes advantage of its exclusive design to provide clients with one-stop optical network devices and cost-effective products.

What Optics Products Are Needed in 5G Fronthaul?

In the past few years, Telecom operators have already upgraded their LTE networks by using additional spectrum, carrier aggregation and LTE-A, and have added Small Cell in Macrocell coverage area to drive the increasement of fronthaul bandwidth requirements. In the current, many operators and equipment vendors have standardized the multi-rate transceivers that support 10Gb/s for all fronthaul requirements. Because they are able to meet most of different transmission speed requirement by one device and decrease the complexity of the specific site design and spare part inventory. Many operators, especially those that lease their fronthaul fiber, also deployed WDM system in their fronthaul networks.

5G Fronthaul Will Need Faster Optical Products, But How Fast?

With the emergence of 5G mobile network, the fronthaul demand will also change. The target peak bandwidth of 5G is 20Gb/s, which will require a higher spectrum than LTE to realize the requirement. That is to say, the shorter wavelength can realize the smaller antenna in the millimeter wave range, thus allows the use of higher order MIMO antenna arrays. In LTE area, 4*8 and 8*8 MIMO have been top. But in 5G area, 64*64 MIMO is also possible. The number of MIMO is higher; the bandwidth required for the corresponding fronthaul link is larger. In the case that other conditions are same, the second way for 5G to increase bandwidth is to use 100 GHz frequency (LTE uses 20GHz), so that can produce a single radio transmission from cellular site to the core network for more than 5 times of bandwidth.

Given the fronthaul bandwidth required to support 5G radio may be have a substantial growth, mobile device manufacturers update the CPRI specification to ”eCPRI” (released in August 2017). One key factor of eCPRI is to transfer some physical layer signal processing from the baseband unit to the radiofrequency pull head (RRH), which in many cases reduces the fronthaul bandwidth to one in ten.

When all the different factors that influence the bandwidth of the 5G fronthaul add up (some drive its growth, some drive it down), the expected bandwidth fall in the 14 Gb/s to 30 Gb/s range, depending on the eCPRI implementation details, base stations, and etc. If the old CPRI scheme is adopted, all physical layer signal processing will remain in the baseband unit, and similar 5G network configuration will require 236Gb/s fronthaul bandwidth. As a result, the 5G base station will generate 160Gb/s or more in nominal terms, and with eCPRI, the actual fronthaul bandwidth required will be 14-30Gb/s.

Just like that 10G optical transceivers can become the actual standard for LTE fronthaul, the next generation of higher standard Ethernet speeds will be applied to 5G fronthaul, which means that 5G deployment will require a large number of 25GbE devices. Even though some components are industrial temperature and/or bidirectional versions specially designed for fronthaul application.

5G Network Will Also Need Higher-speed Optics Products( 25Gb/s or above)

Mobile fronthaul or backhaul need 50G, 100G or even 400G optical transceivers. CPRI alliance has defined fronthaul for a long time, but there is no a consistent definition for wireless backhaul. LightCounting defines the backhaul as the first optical link that begins in BBU and carries the flow from the core network. Other broader definitions include access, aggregation, and core networks. Naturally, if the data flow from BBU to the core network flows to 25Gb/s, then 50G, 10G, or even 400Gb/s transfers may be needed.

Ethernet vs. Wi-Fi: Which One to Choose?

Now we are living in a networking world. Using Ethernet or Wi-Fi can help us to get better wireless network experience. However, we often feel confused while choosing between Wi-Fi and Ethernet. Which one shall I choose? What factors shall be taken into consideration before selecting one of them? Both of the two connections have their own advantages and disadvantages. And these pros and cons are based on some different factors, like speed, security, reliability, latency, etc. Here Gigalight is going to discuss all of the factors in detail below.

Firstly, we need to make it clear that the definition of Ethernet and Wi-Fi before comparing them.

What Is Ethernet and What Is Wi-Fi?

Ethernet is a way of connecting computers together in a local area network or LAN. It has been the most widely used method of linking computers together in LANs since the 1990s. Ethernet is created by Xerox, and jointly developed into the one by Xerox, Intel and DEC. It adopts the CSMA/CD access control method and is conformed to IEEE802.3.

Wi-Fi is the technology that allows a PC, laptop, mobile phone, or tablet device to connect at high speed to the internet without the need of physical wired connection. Wi-Fi uses radio signals to transmit information between your Wi-Fi enabled devices, like your mobile phone, and the internet, allowing the device to receive information from the web in the same way that a radio or mobile phone receives sound.

What’s the Difference between Ethernet and Wi-Fi?

When discussing Ethernet vs. Wi-Fi, there are many differences that can be considered which form the deciding factors in choosing one over another. Some users prefer speed, some users prefer reliability, some users consider security, and some users always like the latest technology. Therefore, the following part will introduce the main differences between Ethernet and Wi-Fi that affect people’s choices.

1. Speed

Wi-Fi has become pretty fast over the years with standards such as 802.11ac and 802.11n being able to give us speeds of 866.7 Mb/s and 150 Mb/s, respectively. That is pretty fast and meets most of our needs, especially when it comes to using the internet.

What about the speed of an Ethernet cable? There are standards for Ethernet cables like cat-5, cat-5e, cat-6 cables etc. Theoretically, a wired Ethernet connection can offer up to 10 Gb/s if you have cat-6 cable. However, the most common cat-5e cable supports up to 1 Gb/s. Ethernet is faster, this is undoubtedly true. If you’re using multiple devices, such as a server where all your data is stored or for LAN gaming, you might consider switching to an Ethernet cable.

2. Reliability

Talking about reliability, Wi-Fi is less reliable of the two. Because a number of things can affect a wireless signal, from other wireless devices to physical objects and walls. This interference can cause dropped signals, higher latency and even lower speeds at times. While it doesn’t matter much when all you need to do is stream content over the internet but for any other purposes, You can minimize this by ensuring your router is placed in the optimum position in your home, but it’s unlikely that you will ever achieve the same levels of stable performance that you will get from Ethernet.

3. Security

When comparing Ethernet vs. Wi-Fi, security is another big factor that needs to be considered. The data on an Ethernet network can only be accessed by devices physically attached to the network. These devices, including the laptop at one end and router at the other, need firewalls to protect them, but there’s way the data itself can be intercepted on the network.

With Wi-Fi, the data is in the air. If you’re using an open network (such as in a coffee shop) then all the data you send and receive can be intercepted, including personal information and login details. That is to say, it is easier to hack into a Wi-Fi network than getting a physical access to the physical Ethernet cable.

Conclusion:

Of course there are other factors considering when you want to choose Ethernet or Wi-Fi, like latency, interference, and so on. Generally speaking, Ethernet offers the advantages of better speed, lower latency, and more reliable connections. Wi-Fi offers the advantage of convenience and being good enough for most uses. So, you can choose one of them according to your actual use.

About Gigalight:

Gigalight is a design innovator in global optical interconnect field. A series of optical interconnect products include: optical transceivers, passive optical components, active optical cables, GIGAC™ MTP/MPO cablings, cloud programmers & checkers, etc. Three applications are mainly covered: Data Center & Cloud Computing, MAN & Broadcast Video, and Wireless & 5G. Gigalight takes advantage of its exclusive design to provide clients with one-stop optical network devices and cost-effective products.

Why 100G Optical Transceivers Are So Popular in 5G Fronthaul

Today we are going to talk about a segmentation closely related to the 5G theme – 100G optical transceivers. Recently, there has been a new landmark theme, which is ”100G optical transceiver”, what are the reasons?

What Are 100G Optical Transceivers?

1. The first explain is that the 100G ”G” refers to the optical signal transmission rate of units, rather than the 5G ”G” (Generation, 5th generation mobile communications).

2. Optical transceiver is one of optical devices to achieve high-speed conversion between optical signals. It includes the optical receiver, optical transmitter, laser, detector and other functional modules.

3. According to the packaging types (CFP / XFP / SFP / QSFP, etc.), the transmission rate (155Mbps ~ 200Gbps), optical link (CWDM / DWDM / PSM), mode (Single-mode / Multi-mode), Plug-in/out mode (Fixed / Hot-pluggable) and other categories, optical transceivers have various kinds of categories. If considering the operating temperature range, whether the number of self-diagnostic functions and performance classification elements, optical transceiver categories are more.

4. The basic structure of an optical transceiver includes a laser (TOSA) + driving circuit, a detector (ROSA) + receiving circuit, a multiplexer (MUX), a demultiplexer (DEMUX), an interface, an auxiliary circuit and a housing.

5. Driven by technological upgrading and cost reduction, the optical transceiver continues to be ”high speed, miniaturization and integration.” 100G optical transceivers use 25G laser chip technology. According to the different packaging methods, 100G optical transceivers are CFP / CFP2 / CFP4, CXP and QSFP28. QSFP28 is a new generation of 100G optical transceiver packaging, and has now become the mainstream packaging of optical transceivers.

6. 100G optical transceivers have different models and standards. Generally speaking, the transmission rate of optical signals is much higher than that of low-rate 10G and 25G products. Now they have become the star products in large-scale data centers and telecom markets.

Why Are 100G Optical Transceivers So Popular?

1. From the Market Segmentation Point of View

The optical transceiver market can be subdivided into Telecom, Datacom and Access markets. Access market generally use 10G and below the low-speed optical transceiver. North American data center market is undergoing 40G to 100G upgrading, the current high-speed optical transceiver is the main growth point. After 5G construction started, the telecommunications market for high-speed optical transceiver demand will be larger than the data center market.

2. The Relationship between Optical Transceivers and 5G

With the evolution of 5G technology, based on the requirement of higher base station density, there will be greater new demand and market space for high-rate optical transceivers. At present, LTE base stations of 4G mainly use 10G optical transceivers, and 25G / 100G optical transceivers are the preferred solutions of the front 5G optical transmission modules in the future.

(1) At present, the market demand for digital communications is growing rapidly: the demand for high-end optical transceivers in Internet data centers is accelerating, especially in overseas digital communications markets. In the data center server and switch, a large number of connections are using optical communication technology; data center network has become the driving force for the growth of optical transceivers. With the construction of large-scale data centers and the outbreak of traffic, the demand for optical transceivers in the data center has been shifted from 10G / 25G to 40G / 100G and 100G has become the mainstream since 2017.

(2) The rapid increase of optical transceiver industry profit in 2016 was mainly due to the sharp increase in the demand for 100G optical transceiver in North American cloud computing center. The demand for optical transceiver increased sharply, and 100G optical transceiver in the market was in short supply. It is estimated that the global 100G optical transceiver shipments in 2017 will reach 200-300 million.

(3) Telecommunication Network Market (Three Major Carrier Capital Expenditure Items): Optical communication is the cornerstone of 5G and the demand of 5G for high-rate optical transceivers increases. At present, LTE base stations of 4G mainly use 10G optical transceivers, and 25G / 100G optical transceivers are the preferred solutions of the 5G fronthaul optical transceivers in the future.

Each base station needs 12 25G / 100G optical transceivers: one base station has one BBU and connects to three RRUs, and each BBU uses three pairs of six optical transceivers, each pair uses two pairs of RRUs, for a total of 12 optical transceivers. Theoretically, due to the characteristics such as high frequency, high density and high connection of 5G, the domestic future needs to build nearly 10 million base stations, that is, the demand of hundreds of millions of optical transceivers, and the number of base stations in North America is 10 million, The demand for high-speed optical transceivers brought by 5G construction will be even greater. At present, there are many kinds of mature 100G optical transceivers in the market, like 100G QSFP28 CWDM4, 100G QSFP28 PSM4 and 100G CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 optical modules provided by Gigalight. They cover the mainstream form factors: CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 / QSFP28 and can be used for a variety of optical network bearer demand.

100G QSFP28 Optical Transceivers Introduction

The continuous and rapid development of the Internet as well as the desire of people for higher speed optical networks facilitated the vigorous development of the entire optical communications industry and strongly promoted the independent R & D and innovation in many core technologies including optoelectronic devices technologies. 100g optical transceiver is regarded as the product of this big data era.

The first generation of 100G optical modules is CFP optical module with very large volume, then CFP2 and CFP4 optical modules appears. CFP4 optical module is the latest generation of 100G optical module, the width is only 1/4 of CFP optical module. Its package size is not same as the QSFP + optical module. The QSFP28 optical module has a smaller package size than the CFP4 optical module, which means the QSFP28 optical module has a higher port density on the switch. The following are several 100G QSFP28 series optical modules:

Main Types of QSFP28 Optical Transceivers

100G QSFP28 LR4 is a 100Gb/s transceiver module designed for optical communication applications compliant to 100GBASE-LR4 of the IEEE P802.3ba standard.

100G QSFP28 SR4 is a four-channel, pluggable, parallel, fiber-optic QSFP+ SR4 optical transceiver module for 100/40 Gigabit Ethernet, Infiniband DDR/EDR and 32GFC applications.

100G QSFP28 PSM4 is a four-channel, pluggable, parallel, fiber-optic QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver module for 100/40 Gigabit Ethernet and Infiniband DDR/EDR Applications.

100G QSFP28 CWDM4 is a 100Gb/s transceiver module which is designed for optical communication applications compliant with the QSFP MSA, CWDM4 MSA and portions of IEEE P802.3bm standard.

Of course, QSFP28 series also includes 100G QSFP28 active optical cables; these products have played an important role in the development of 100G.

Advantages of 100G QSFP28 Optical Transceivers

1. Power Consumption

The power consumption of QSFP28 typically is no more than 3.5W, while the power consumption of other 100G optical modules typically is between 6W and 24W. From this, the power consumption of QSFP28 optical modules is much lower power than other 100G optical modules.

2. Cost

Now the data center is mainly 10G network architecture, in which the interconnection solutions are mainly 10GBASE-SR optical module and duplex LC multimode fiber jumper. If the existing 10G network architecture based on the direct is upgraded to 40 / 100G network, it will save a lot of time and cost. Therefore, one of the major interconnection trends in data centers is to upgrade from 10G networks to 40 / 100G networks without changing existing duplex multimode infrastructure. In this case, the MPO / MTP branchable cable is undoubtedly the ideal solution for a 10G upgrade to 40 / 100G.

3. Bandwidth

The QSFP28 uses the advanced 100G transport technology to provide the data center with a connection between the chassis switch and the core network, providing up to 150% greater panel bandwidth density than the 40G QSFP solution

Optical Module Test

When using optical modules, test performance is an essential step. Optical module is composed of transmitter and receiver, so when we test, it is generally divided into four steps, which mainly includes the transmitter and receiver test.

First, the transmitter part:

When testing, pay attention to the wavelength and shape of the transmitter output waveform, as well as the receiver’s jitter tolerance and bandwidth. When testing the transmitter, note the following:

1. The quality of the input signal used to test the transmitter must be good enough. In addition, the quality of the electrical measurements must also be confirmed by jitter and eye measurements. Eye diagram measurements are a common way to check the transmitter’s output waveform because the eye diagram contains a wealth of information that reflects the overall performance of the transmitter.

2.The output optical signal of the transmitter must be measured by the optical quality index such as eye pattern test, optical modulation amplitude and extinction ratio.

Second, the receiver part:

Unlike test transmitters, the quality of the optical signal must be sufficiently poor when testing the receiver that a light pressure eye pattern representing the worst signal must be created. This worst case optical signal must pass through jitter measurements and light Power test to calibrate.

1. Eye pattern test, this will ensure that the eye ”eye” is open. Eye diagram testing is usually done at the depth of the bit error rate;

2. Jitter test to test different types of jitter;

3. Jitter Tracking and Tolerance, testing the internal clock recovery circuit to track the jitter.

All in all, testing light modules is a complex undertaking, but it is also an indispensable step in ensuring good performance. Eye diagram measurement is a widely used measurement method that can effectively test the transmitter of an optical module. The optical module receiver test is more complex, but also requires more testing methods.


Sida 1 av 3123