Fiber Optic Tech

How to Understand PoE and PoE+ Switches

Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) is the technology that allows network switches to transmit power and data through an Ethernet cable at the same time. PoE switch streamlines both of the processes of powering and providing data to the device, which makes it a straightforward and reliable device for home network and small enterprise application. This article describes two types of PoE (PoE and PoE+) that are commonly used and provides information on what types of PoE can be used according to different applications.

PoE Versus non-PoE Technology

Power over Ethernet technology facilitates powering a device (such as an IP phone, IP Surveillance Camera, or NVR recorder) over the same Ethernet cable as the data traffic. Figure 1 shows an Ethernet Network with IP camera, PoE Switch, NVR recorder and Wireless router. Compared to non-PoE devices, PoE devices feature with flexibility that allow you to easily place endpoints anywhere in the business, even places where it might be difficult to run a power outlet.

Wireless Home Network with POE switch

PoE Versus PoE+ Technology

PoE was first defined in the IEEE 802.3af standard. PoE devices utilize PoE standard, which can provide up to 15.4W of DC power to each port. A later standard, IEEE 802.3at, known as PoE+, increases the amount of power to 30 W. The major difference between 802.3af (PoE) and 802.3at (PoE+) is that PoE+ PSEs can provide almost twice as much power over a single Ethernet cable.

PoE and PoE+

Can PoE+ devices work over PoE Ports, Or vice versa? The PoE+ standard provides support for legacy PoE devices, meaning that an IEEE 802.3af powered device (PD) can operate normally when connected to IEEE 802.3at (PoE+) power sourcing equipment (PSE). PoE+ PSEs can supply power to both PoE and PoE+ PDs. However, as PoE+ PDs require more power than PoE PSEs can provide, PoE PSEs can only supply power to PoE PDs.

PoE Switch Or PoE+ Switch

Whether to use PoE or PoE+ switch for your network, you need to calculate your required power budget carefully for all of the PDs you plan to connect. PoE+ IEEE 802.3at devices can supply a maximum of 30 watts per port, while PoE IEEE 802.3af devices can supply a maximum of 15.4 watts per port. However, some power is always lost over the length of the cable, and more power is lost over longer cable runs. The minimum guaranteed power available at the PD is 12.95 watts per port for PoE and 25.5 watts per port for PoE+.

For most endpoints, 802.3af is sufficient but there are devices, such as Video phones or Access Points with multiple radios, which have higher power needs. It’s important to point out that there are other PoE standards currently being developed that will deliver even high levels of power for future applications. Optical switches have a power budget set aside for running the switch itself, and also an amount of power dedicated for PoE endpoints.

POE switch

FS PoE Switches

FS POE switches can supply power to network equipment such as weather-proof IP cameras, AP and IP telephones. They are featured with high flexibility, high stability and high resistance to electromagnetic interference. All FS PoE switches come with a one-year limited warranty, including any quality problems during the free maintenance. The following above shows 1G PoE Switch with 24 1000BASE-T and 4 SFP ports.

Original Source: How to Understand PoE and PoE+ Switches

Four Basic Elements in a WDM System

We know that fiber can carry more data over long distances than any other physical medium. That makes fiber a very precious material. And how to make the most use of your fiber plant becomes a question. So there comes Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM).

DWDM MUX

Why Should We Deploy WDM ?

WDM can multiply your fiber capacity by creating virtual fibers. The foundation of WDM lies in the ability to send different data types over fiber networks in the form of light. By allowing different light channels, each with a unique wavelength, to be sent simultaneously over an optical fiber network, a single virtual fiber network is created. Instead of using multiple fibers for each and every service, a single fiber can be shared for several services. In this way WDM increases the bandwidth and maximizes the usefulness of fiber. Since fiber rental or purchase accounts for a large share of networking costs, substantial costs can be saved through the application of WDM. Next I will introduce to you the basic four elements in the form of a WDM system.

The Core Technology of WDM System

Generally speaking, a WDM system consists of four elements, that are transceiver, multiplexer, patch cord and dark fiber. The following text will explain them to you respectively.

optical multiplexer

  • Fiber Optic Transceivers. Optical transceivers are wavelength-specific lasers that convert data signals from SAN or WAN to optical signals that can be transmitted into the fiber. Each data stream is converted into a signal with a light wavelength that is an unique color. Due to the physical properties of light, channels cannot interfere with each other. Therefore, all WDM wavelengths are independent. Creating virtual fiber channels in this way can reduce the number of fibers required. It also allows new channels to be connected as needed, without disrupting the existing traffic services.
  • Optical Multiplexers. The WDM multiplexer, sometimes referred to as the Mux, is the key to optimizing, or maximizing, the use of the fiber. The multiplexer is at the heart of the operation, gathering all the data streams together to be transported simultaneously over a single fiber. At the other end of the fiber the streams are demultiplexed and separated into different channels again.
  • Patch cord. The transceiver transmits the high-speed data protocols on narrow band wavelengths while the multiplexer is at the heart of the operation. The patch cable is the glue that joins these two key elements together. LC fiber patch cables are popular, which connect the output of the transceiver to the input on the multiplexer.
  • Dark fiber. A requisite for any WDM solution is access to a dark fiber network. The most common way of transporting optical traffic over an architecture is by using a fiber pair. One of the fibers is used for transmitting the data and the other is used for receiving the data. This allows the maximum amount of traffic to be transported. At times only a single fiber is available. Because different light colors travel on different wavelengths, a WDM system can be built regardless. One wavelength is used to send data and a second one to receive it.

Conclusion

WDM has revolutionized the cost of network transport. Thanks to WDM, fiber networks can carry multiple Terabits of data per second over thousands of kilometers with a low cost that is unimaginable less than a decade ago. At FS, we offer a comprehensive portfolio of WDM transmission modules to support the network applications of enterprise and service provider customers. For more details, please visit www.fs.com.

How to Build 10G Network Within Budget

Modern business have become increasingly digital for cloud and data center application, which means everything from sales and marketing to service and support, rely heavily on a fast and reliable network. In 2017, Gigabit Ethernet data rate is no longer adequate to support your business in the ever-developing digital world. Therefore, more and more people nowadays prefers to migrate to 10 Gigabit network. This blog will introduce some basic components of 10G network and how to layout 10GbE within your budget.

How Much Does It Cost?

Three expensive but dispensable elements of 10G network are 10G core switches, access switches with 10G uplinks, and 10G network interface cards for severs and storage devices.

10G network layout

A 10G core switch might cost you $4000 10 years ago, but today, it heavily drops to under $150 per port. Take Cisco 550X and 350X series switches as the example, they offer a full series of 12, 16, 24, 48 10G ports for small and midsize enterprises nearly at $1,500. Obviously, the price can be pretty lower if you search around. For example, Ubiquiti Unifi and Edgeswitch series switches nearly at $200 are suitable for small businesses. FS S3800-48T4S with 48x 100/1000Base-T and 4x 10GE SFP+ is at $480.

For 10G access switches with 10G uplinks, FS S3800-24F4S, S3800-24T4S, S2800-24T4F provides 24 ports with 4 10G uplinks, starting from around $220.

A 10G network interface card (NIC) on severs or storage devices cost usually lower depending on the brand. The hot-selling Mellanox ConnectX series NICs are quite cheap on ebay and Amazon (for under $19).

10G Fiber Optic cabling Elements—10Gbase-T, DAC & SFP+ fiber optics?

When migrating from 1G to 10G, it is simple. Especially with 10GBase-T supported on your 10G switches, you use the same familiar RJ45 network cable to connect the 10G switch with your servers, storage and other switches, and they go up to the same 100 meters as in the Gigabit network. Just make sure you pick up a Cat6a RJ45 network cable instead of the cat5e or cat6a cables. 1m cat6a cables at FS.COM is $3.4. 10GBase-T technology is becoming more popular in network switches and servers because of its lower cost and ease of use. Besides the cat6a/cat7 Ethernet cables, you can also select SFP+ 10GBASE-T modules with 2.5W power consumption and a maximum distance of 30m. SFP+ 10GBASE-T offered at FS.COM is nearly $380.

S3800-24T4S

FS S3800-24F4S (seen in the above image), S3800-24T4S and S2800-24T4F also support 10G SFP+. You are recommended to use SFP+ ports if you have existing devices that come with 10G SFP+ port or you need a 10G connection to other switches that are more than 100 meters away.

For servers or storage devices with 10G SFP+ port, the most cost-efficient way to connect is to use SFP 10G DAC (direct attach cable). These are basically copper cables with SFP+ connector on both sides, and they come in limited length of 1m, 3m and 5m. 0.5m copper SFP+ cables at FS.COM is $9.5.

switchcable-and-ethernet-interface SFP+ DAC cables

For switches that are more than 100 meters away, you will need a pair of SFP+ modules and the matching fiber cable between them. Depending on the length required, you can use multimode SFP+ and fiber to reach 400 meters and single-mode SFP+ and single-mode fiber optic cables to reach 10 km. For the reliable 10G devices like SFP+ transceivers and fiber optic cables, you can visit FS.COM.

How to Ensure a Smooth 10G Upgrading

You don’t need to rush your whole network to 10GbE in one step. Just start from the core switches that you use to connect all your access switches together and connect your servers and storage devices. Think about how many ports you need and if redundancy is a concern for you. Having two core switches stacked together to provide redundancy and also extra performance is a good design for a solid network foundation.

After upgrading your core switches to 10G, it is time to migrate your key access switches and servers to 10G. You will see immediate performance gain in the most critical parts of your network. The rest of the network can stay as they are for the moment, because 10GBase-T ports are backward compatible with Gigabit links, and 10G SFP+ cage can also work with 1G SFP modules. You can upgrade the rest of your network to 10G whenever you’re ready or in multiple phases if you wish.

Conclusion

I bet you must have a good understanding of what’s between the 10 Gigabit high-performance network. The technology is not complicated, especially with FS 10G switches, Cat6a cables, SFP+ transceivers and SFP+ DAC cables. We will help you build a user-friendly and cost-efficient 10G networks. For more information on FS 10G series switches, please contact us directly.

CFP 100GBASE-SR10 VS. 100G QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4

With the price of 100G optics cutting down, 2017 witnesses the great expansion of `100G hardware market. QSFP28 and CFP 100G optical transceivers are becoming popular among customers. Not only Cisco, HPE, Brocade, and Huawei, but the third party vendors like FS.COM offer 100G devices including the 100G switches, MTP/MPO cables, QSFP28, CFP/CFP2/CFP4 and so on. In this blog, I will compare 100G QSFP28 SR4 with CFP SR10 modules, and analyze the electrical and optical diagram.

CFP 100GBASE-SR10 Module Outlook

CFP 100GBASE-SR10 is a MSA specified 100G C-form factor supporting link lengths of 100 m/150 m over laser-optimized OM3/OM4 cable, respectively. It is mainly used in 10 x 10 Gigabit Ethernet mode along with MTP Harness cables for connectivity to 10 10GBASE-SR optical interfaces. It usually enables high-bandwidth 100Gbps links over 24-fiber MPO/MTP ribbon cables.

100G QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4 Outlook

QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4 module is a parallel 100G optics designed with optical/electrical connection and digital diagnostic interface. It offers 4 independent transmit and receive channels, each capable of 25Gbps operation for an aggregated data rate of 100Gbps for 100m on 12-fiber MPO/MTP OM4 fiber cable. Figure 1 shows the CFP SR10 (left) and QSFP28 modules (right).

CFP SR10 Vs. QSFP28 SR4

The QSFP28 SR4 transceiver (such as Cisco 100G-QSFP28-SR4) is compatible with 100G QSFP 100GBASE-SR4 standards that meets IEEE 802.3 and MSA requirements with power dissipation well under 3.5W. It supports both 100GBASE-SR4 as well as 4x25G breakout, 100G QSFP28 to QSFP28 DAC and 100G QSFP28 SR4 to 4SFP28 break-out cables.

Comparison Between CFP 100GBASE-SR10 and 100G QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4

  • Size Comparison

100GBASE CFP module is the old generation 100G transceivers. It is designed after SFP modules, but quite larger to support 100Gbps in 10 x 10Gbps lanes. QSFP28 is the newly released 100G form factor, which further increase port density and reduce footprint & power consumption. QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4 has the same form factor as the 40G QSFP optics, supporting 4x25Gbps mode.

size-comparison of CFP and QSFP28

The above image shows the size comparison between CFP 100GBASE-SR10 and 100GBASE SR4 QSFP transceiver. Obviously, QSFP28 is much smaller than CFP 100G modules, which just in time explains the reason that QSFP28 optics is more popular than CFP transceivers.

  • Working Principle

As noted before, QSFP28 SR4 modules work on 4x25G lanes and CFP SR10 operates over 10x10G lanes.

100GBASE-SR10

100GBASE-SR4

100GBASE-SR4 supports higher speed per channel (25Gbps) than 100GBASE-SR10 (10Gbps), so that QSFP28 can reduce port density with compact footprint.

  • Terminating Cables—12F Vs. 24F MTP/MPO MMF

Both CFP 100GBASE-SR10 and 100G QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4 terminates with MTP/MPO OM3/OM4 cables for 100G transmission. However, QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4 modules uses a 12 fibers MPO/MTP multimode cable for connectivity (4 Tx and 4 Rx, each lane providing 25 Gbps of throughput) while CFP 100GBASE-SR10 optics use a 2×12-fiber or 24-fiber strand MPO/MTP multimode cable for connectivity (10 Tx and 10 Rx, each lane providing 10 Gbps of throughput).

CFP 100GBASE-SR10, compared with QSFP28 SR4 optics uses two 12-fiber or one 24-fiber MPO/MTP cable. It is not a cost-effective solution in terms of the cable management.

Conclusion

100GBASE-SR10 CFP and 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 are the 100G multimode optics. QSFP28 SR4 transceivers, like 40GBASE-SR4, use a 12 fiber MPO cable with 4 strands for transmit and 4 for receive. While CFP 100GBase-SR10 optics uses a 24 strand MPO cable: 10 strands for transmit and 10 strands for receive. From the above article, we know that 100GBase-SR4 QSFP28 is more cost-effective than 100GBase-SR10 CFP in port density and cable management. FS.COM 100G QSFP28 price is lower than any other vendors. Our reliable 100G CFP modules are also with high quality and low price. If you have any interest, don’t forget to contact us.

10G Ethernet SFP+ Vs. 10G Fibre Channel SFP+

Today’s technology presents unprecedented migration incorporating a wide range of application requirements such as database, transaction processing, data warehousing, integrated audio/video, real-time computing, and collaborative projects. Fibre Channel and Gigabit Ethernet, both are the ideal solutions for IT professionals who need reliable, cost-effective information storage and delivery at fast speeds. Fibre Channel is available in 1G/2G/4G/8G/16G FC and 10GFCoE, 40GFCoE and 100GFCoE nowadays. Gigabit Ethernet is the reigning network for data center and server room. The battle between Fibre Channel and Ethernet is complicated. However, this article will help you solve it out by comparing 10G SFP+ Fibre Channel transceiver modules and 10G Ethernet SFP+ modules.

Encoding Mechanisms of Ethernet and FC

Any time we’re transmitting or storing data, we encode it in some form or another. Then we need to understand the encoding mechanisms of Ethernet and FC.

1, 2, 4, and 8 Gb Fibre Channel all use 8b/10b encoding. Meaning, 8 bits of data gets encoded into 10 bits of transmitted information, the two bits are used for data integrity. For example, Original 1Gb FC is actually 1.0625Gb/s, and each generation has kept this standard and multiplied it. 8Gb FC would be 8×1.0625, or actual bandwidth of 8.5Gb/s. 8.5*.80 = 6.8. 6.8Gb of usable bandwidth on an 8Gb FC link.

10GE (and 10G FC, for that matter) uses 64b/66b encoding. For a 10Gb link using 64b/66b encoding, that leaves 96.96% of the bandwidth for user data, or 9.7Gb/s.

10G SFP+ Fibre Channel Transceiver Module

10G SFP+ Fibre Channel (FC) transceiver, as the name implies, is the 10G optical transceivers used for Fibre Channel applications. 10G FC SFP+ module has the same footprint as SFP form factor and is compliant with MSA SFF-8431. 10G SFP+ Fibre Channel transceivers uses the either the 850nm VCSEL as the transmitter fro multimode fiber or 1310nm/1550nm laser as the transmitters for single-mode fibers in SONET OC-192 /SDH, 10GBASE-SW, 10GBASE-LW, 10GBASE-EW, and 10GBASE-ZW applications.

Cisco DS-SFP-FC10G-LW

Cisco DS-SFP-FC10G-LW, seen in the above image, is the long-range single-mode 10G SFP+ FC optical module for a link length of 10km over 1310nm wavelength. 10GFC is backward compatible with previous generation 8G/4G/2GFC and will auto-negotiate down to the fastest speed supported by both ports. This allows 10GFC devices and switches to be seamlessly integrated into expansion segments of existing FC networks without a forklift upgrade.

10GBASE SFP+ Ethernet Transceiver Module

SFP+ 10G modules is the optical transceiver for serial optical communication applications at 10Gbps. Unlike the SFP+ FC transceivers, 10GBASE SFP+ Ethernet modules can use either copper or fiber cabling. SFP+ 10GBASE-T optical transceiver supports Cat6 RJ45 copper cables for a link length of 30m. 10GBASE SFP+ Ethernet modules are available in several 10 Gigabit Ethernet standards like 10GBASE-SR Ethernet, 10GBASE-LR, 10GBASE-LRM, 10GBASE-ER, 10GBASE-ZR, and 10GBASE-T.

HPE 10G SFP+ module
Cisco SFP-10G-LR is the 10km Cisco 10GBASE-LR SFP+ module that uses 1310nm as the transmitter type over single-mode fiber cables. 10GBASE-LR SFP+ modules cannot be auto-negotiate with 1000BASE SFP transceivers, but for most switches, SFP+ ports can support 1G SFP modules for 1Gbps data rate.

Comparison Between 10G Fibre Channel SFP+ and 10G Ethernet SFP+

From the previous description, we can easily draw a conclusion that 10G Fiber Channel SFP+ and 10G Ethernet SFP+ share several specification in common.

  • Footprint

They have the same form factor as 1000BASE SFP transceiver modules.

  • Performance

Except the application, 10G Fiber Channel SFP+ SW module and 10Gb SR SFP+ transceivers have the very similar functions with each other. For the exact information, please see the following table.

10G SFP+ FC modules

  • Application

10G Fiber Channel SFP+ is used in 10G Fibre Channel, yet 10G Ethernet SFP+ is utilized in 10G Ethernet networks.

2017 Prediction of Ethernet and Fibre Channel

Without denying, Ethernet is the dominating network for every data center and server room. The “old” Ethernet network—1Gb/s and 10Gb/s speeds relied heavily on TCP to deliver data, which was reliable but somewhat unpredictable. However, today’s Ethernet runs at 25, 40, 50, or 100Gb/s speeds, is no longer dependent on TCP alone. It also supports RDMA connections which lower latency and frees up CPU cycles to run applications. 100Gb/s technology is quite matured in 2017 and there are many relevant devices available on the market, such as CFP/QSFP28 optical transceivers, 100G switches and network interface cards, 24 fiber MTP cables, etc.

Fibre Channel Vs. Gigabit Ethernet

Meanwhile, FC is still transitioning to 16/32 Gb/s technology (32Gb/s is not mature), which is quite slower than what Ethernet was supporting several years ago. For 32Gb/s FC network, it still supports only block storage traffic. Other storage (and other non-storage) traffic will require an Ethernet network anyway.

If we look at what is coming in 2017, the battle will not be 10/40/100GbE Vs. 8/10/16/32Gb FC. Almost everyone would agree that it would be nice to have a single network for all traffic, and very few users want a new protocol and the challenges of changing the way that they do things.

Conclusion

FC or Ethernet, which is best for storage? 10Gb FC SFP+ has the same usable bandwidth as the 10Gb Ethernet SFP+, and without the overhead of FCoE, but you don’t get the consolidation benefits of using the same physical link for your storage and traditional Ethernet traffic. FS.COM offers reliable 10G SFP+ transceivers in Ethernet, FC, BiDi, CWDM/DWDM applications. If you are interested in our products, please contact us directly.

Compatible Gigabit SFP Optical Transceiver for Netonix WISP Switch

The Netonix WISP switch is the managed PoE Gigabit Switches with several Gigabit Ethernet RJ45 and SFP ports. Compared with Ubiquiti Networks Edgeswitch switches (40C), Netonix WISP switches was designed with a rugged chassis and extended operating temperature (-25 to 55C), which is more suitable for outdoor deployment. Furthermore, the ability to power AirFibers is the unique feature of WISP switches. This article will describe WISP switches in detail and help you choose the compatible Gigabit SFP optical transceivers for Netonix WISP switches.

Netonix Gigabit WISP Switches

WISP switches are the Netonix Gigabit switches with the performance of Non-Blocking Throughput Switching and software configuration passive PoE. The Netonix WISP switches feature the ability to power many popular 24V, 48V/50V passive PoE devices from manufacturers including Ubiquiti Networks airMAX™, UniFi™, SAF™, MIMOSA™, Ligowav™, and airFIBER™ product lines. There are WS-24-400A, WS-24-400B, WS-12-250A, WS-12-250B, WS-12-250-DC, WS-12-250-AC, WS-12-DC, WS-10-250-AC, WS-8-250-DC, WS-8-250-AC, WS-8-150-DC, WS-8-150-AC, and WS-6-MINI.

WS-6-MiNi

Note that: the No. “6”, “8”, “10”… in those model refers to the numbers of port. And “150” and “250” means the max power consumption. The above image shows the simple home network setup using WS-6-MINI switches.

Optical Transceiver Tested to Work Well in WISP Switches

According to Netonix community, the SFP (optical module form factor) Gigabit Ethernet ports on WISP switches accommodate a full range of SFP optical transceiver modules, including SFP 1000BASE-T, SFP 1000BASE-SX, SFP 1000Base-LX/LH, SFP 1000BASE-ZX, SFP 1000BASE-BX-D, SFP 1000BASE-BX-U, SFP 1000BASE-EX. The following SFP optical transceivers are reported to be working fine on WISP switches.

Major Branded Optical Transceivers For WISP Switches

Original SFP transceiver module

optical transceiver

Compatible Optical Transceivers for WISP Switches

Fiberstore compatible optical transceivers are reported to work well on Netonix WISP switches. The following table lists the detailed information about the compatible optical transceiver modules on WISP switches.

FS.COM compatible optical transceiver for WISP switches

Conclusion

The Netonix WISP switches were designed to be part of the Small Business or home networking products that work together as part of proven, fully integrated, easy-to-use small business solution. These switches support a huge number of Gigabit Ethernet SFP optical transceivers. All these high-quality fiber optic transceivers can be found on FS.COM for competitive prices. FS.COM is committed to provide free shipping in USA, Mexico and Australia.


Page 1 of 18
1
......Last »