我许你地老天荒

managed to benefit all of us

Weaker is stronger?

Peer-to-peer file-sharing on the Internet has certainly weakened copyright, but that’s not necessarily a bad thing unless one equates “stronger copyright” with “better copyright.” According to the US Constitution, copyright is about promoting “the Progress of Science and useful Arts”; it’s not about enriching authors, except as a means of promoting said “Progress.”

When we think about copyright, the most pertinent question to ask is not whether some change would produce less money for rightsholders, but whether some change would remove incentives to create. Has file-sharing reduced creators’ incentives?

Oberholzer-Gee and Strumpf presented a recent paper at a music business conference in Vienna that tried to answer this question empirically. By charting the production of new books, new music albums, and new feature films over the last decade, the authors tried to see whether creative output went up or down in correlation with file-sharing.

“Data on the supply of new works are consistent with our argument that file sharing did not discourage authors and publishers,” they write in their paper, “File-sharing and Copyright” (PDF).

“The publication of new books rose by 66 percent over the 2002-2007 period. Since 2000, the annual release of new music albums has more than doubled, and worldwide feature film production is up by more than 30 percent since 2003… In our reading of the evidence there is little to suggest that the new technology has discouraged artistic production. Weaker copyright protection, it seems, has benefited society.”

The authors don’t claim (anymore) that file-sharing has no effect on industries like recorded music. Though both authors also collaborated on a now-famous paper from 2007 which argued that file-sharing had no appreciable impact on music sales, they are willing to concede now that it might be a small part of the industry’s problems.

Indeed, they round up a host of studies from the past few years suggesting that, on average, one-fifth of declining music sales might be chalked up to piracy. (The rise of new entertainment options like video game has also hurt the business, and consumers finally stopped “re-buying” old albums on CD by the mid-2000s.)
But looking at such declines provides only a narrow view. Looked at more broadly, the music industry “has grown considerably” in the last few years. When concert revenue is added to recorded music revenue, the authors note that the overall industry grew more than 5 percent between 1997 and 2007.

That’s in large part because consumers’ willingness to pay for “complements” like concerts and merchandise goes up as the price of music and movies falls, and because consumers are exposed to many more artists when prices are low or nonexistent.

Even if the music industry was shrinking, though, the authors point out that creativity has not declined—which suggests that weaker copyright can still promote the “Progress” sought by the Founders.

“We do not yet have a full understanding of the mechanisms by which file-sharing may have altered the incentives to produce entertainment,” conclude the authors. “However, in the industry with the largest purported impact—music—consumer access to recordings has vastly improved since the advent of file-sharing. Since 2000, the number of recordings produced has more than doubled. In our view, this makes it difficult to argue that weaker copyright protection has had a negative impact on artists’ incentives to be creative.”

Unconvinced

The music industry doesn’t buy the argument. According to international trade group IFPI, “Live performance earnings are generally more to the benefit of veteran, established acts, while it is the younger developing acts, without lucrative live careers, who do not have the chance to develop their reputation through recorded music sales.” Thus, recorded music sales remain important.

And IFPI’s 2010 “Digital Music Report” (PDF) makes the case that artists are producing less in states with high piracy rates. “In France, there has been a striking fall in the number of local repertoire albums released in recent years,” says the report. “In the first half of 2009, 107 French-repertoire albums were released, 60 per cent down on the 271 in the same period of 2003.” (This number appears to involve only major labels, however, and cheap digital tools mean that much of the music production today is done without a major label.)

In pursuit of wellness: what I’ve learned from years of health yo-yoing

It was 2014, I was 39 and had been living in New York and eating a fairly standard local diet: bagels, burritos, burgers, beers, martinis and margaritas. I’d put on weight and my clothes didn’t fit. My energy levels were low and I’d beg my friends not to put my photo on Facebook. “Don’t! I have too many chins!” I’d plead.

This wasn’t a New Year’s Day feeling – where I woke up with a killer hangover and a phoneful of regretful things I’d done and said. This was different. It was an undeniable realisation that the treadmill I had been on for many years now – hedonism followed by a health kick and back to hedonism – was no longer serving me. Was it really serving anyone? Swinging between decadence and self-imposed deprivation was fast becoming the new normal in the super-abundant West,An oil vaporizer runs on oil vape battery which needs charging. Now imagine one that takes long hour to pre-heat! Isn\’t that irritating? So, it\’s always better to buy an oil vape pen battery from reputed online sites.

Then, when I was contemplating how to take control over my health, a curious opportunity popped into my inbox….

Can you pass our DIY health MOT?

Next month will mark five years since the release of one of the scarier research papers in recent memory.

Scientific studies are often scary, especially when they’re related to health. With good intentions, they document the seemingly endless ways we could die, from the undetected cancerous cells that can grow in our bodies to the hazardous content of our diets. These studies, reported by news organisations across the globe, indulge the paranoiac that lurks within every one of us. Reading them is like taking a tour of the Grim Reaper’s mind,Having a ceramic vape cartridge is advantageous in vape cartridge packaging as it’s healthier. Ceramic parts are resistant to abrasion and oxidation unlike other alloy wires where, oxidation occurs at higher temperature.

But this Brazilian paper was different.

The research documented the findings of a group of physicians who asked 2,002 people between the ages of 51 and 80 to do the ‘sitting-rising test’, an old gymnastics drill that was first adapted by the medical community in the 1990s. The test involves sitting down cross-legged on the floor and then standing up again,…

hours to get your hair

This site lists hair extension salons by state. It also features articles on the care of hair extensions and hair loss information. Additionally, they have supplies and training resources.

HairBonz

This is the website for the HairBonz hair extension system. You can call 1-888-693-HAIR to find a listing of hair extension salons using the HairBonz system cargo van rental.

Hair Boutique

This informative site has links to hair extension salons. Unfortunately, the information is listed alphabetically and cannot be searched by city or state. However, if you have the patience to scan the listings you just might find a local salon.

Black Beauty Care Directory

This site is specifically for African-American beauty concerns, and lists salons that cater to African hair. Information is categorized by state for easy access.

Another way to find a local hair extension salon is to type “Houston hair extension salons” or “hair extensive salons near Houston” in a search engine. Of course, use your own city name in place of Houston!

You can also use your Yellow Pages to find hair extension salons reenex facial.

One of the best ways to find a top-quality salon is by word of mouth. If a friend or family member has beautiful extensions, ask for a reference.

No matter where you located your hair extension salon, make sure that your stylist is qualified to apply the extensions. He or she should be a licensed cosmetologist with ample experience in applying the type of extensions you are considering. Many experts recommend that you meet some of the stylist’s other clients and find out if they are happy with their extensions. At the very least, ask to see a portfolio with before and after pictures Sensodyne.

Why Did People Become White?

Humans come in a rainbow of hues, from dark chocolate browns to nearly translucent whites.

This full kaleidoscope of skin colors was a relatively recent evolutionary development, according to biologists, occuring alongside the migration of modern humans out of Africa between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago International School Interview.

The consensus among scientists has always been that lower levels of vitamin D at higher latitudes — where the sun is less intense — caused the lightening effect when modern humans, who began darker-skinned, first migrated north.

But other factors might be at work, a new study suggests. From the varying effects of frostbite to the sexual preferences of early men, a host of theories have been reviewed.

Vitamin iDea

Vitamin D plays an important role in bone growth and the body’s natural protection against certain diseases, and the inability to absorb enough in areas of less-powerful sunlight would have decreased life expectancies in our African ancestors. The further north they trekked, the more vitamin D they needed and the lighter they got over the generations, due to natural selection dermes vs medilase.

This explanation accounts for the world’s gradients of skin color traveling south to north, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among African immigrants to higher latitudes, as well as the relatively darker skin of Canada’s Inuit peoples, who have good levels of vitamin D despite living in the Arctic, due to their diet rich in oily fish.

Sounds about right … right?

In fact, there might have been a number of concurrent evolutionary pressures at work that contributed to the development of lighter skin, according to a new study published in the August issue of the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology.

“In our opinion the vitamin D hypothesis is one of the most likely hypotheses responsible for skin lightening, although there still is no consensus about it,” said study author Asta Juzeniene of the Oslo University Hospital in Oslo, Norway.

A number of competing theories were explained and evaluated by Juzeniene and her team, reopening a debate that remains one of the most interesting and controversial in biology.

Paling in comparison

Sexual selection may have played a role, for one, with males preferring paler skin in northern latitudes, the researchers surmised.

“One of the hypotheses is that men seem to prefer women with a light skin color, which can be regarded as a sign of youth and fertility,” Juzeniene told LiveScience. “Because light skin characterizes the early infant stage of primates, it may have become a visual cue that triggers appropriate adult behavior toward infants, i.e. decreased aggressiveness and increased desire to provide care and protection,” she said.

As lighter skin became associated with increased health in northerly latitudes, men may have preferred mates with lighter skin and produced ever-paler generations. Fertility and health statistics at different latitudes from a few thousand years ago aren’t available, Juzeniene cautioned, however, so the theory is difficult to test.

Frostbite was another causal effect investigated by the researchers.

Some reports from American soldiers serving in the Korean War and elsewhere have indicated that dark skin is more prone to frostbite than white because it emits more heat. In colder climates, evolution could have negatively selected for paler skin if frostbite was significant enough to perhaps kill darker-skinned children.

Despite the anecdotal evidence, there is not enough scientific data to support frostbite as a strong enough single factor to lighten skin in places such as Europe, the researchers said reenex HydraFacial.

On the farm

Another possibility noted was the switch from subsistence-based economies to agriculture approximately 10,000 years ago, which eliminated vitamin D-rich food sources from the diet. This would have had an especially potent effect in northern Europe, according to Juzeniene and her team.

“Development of agriculture has occurred in several places, and did not necessarily lead to skin lightening if the ambient UVB [ultraviolet light from the sun] level was sufficiently high to allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Cold climates and high latitudes would speed up the need for skin lightening,” however, if people were relying mainly on grains as a food source, the researchers wrote.

The main problem with this agriculture theory is that the switch from gathering to farming occurred relatively recently, and scientists question whether all of the evolutionary changes associated with skin color could have happened so quickly.

Skin lightening could also have been accelerated by something as simple as genetic drift, making it “easier” for a pale skin mutations to succeed in northern latitudes.

Though other elements may have come into play and need to be examined further, vitamin D remains the most likely explanation, Juzeniene stressed, especially given its role in overall health.

“If we assume that vitamin D does not play any role in the development of human skin color, neither white nor dark, many people in the world would suffer from vitamin D deficiency,” she said.

While people of all skin types have the ability to produce the same amount of vitamin D in their systems, “highly pigmented people will need to stay in the sun around 6 times longer than light people in order to synthesize the same amount of vitamin D,” Juzeniene said, and a lack of the vitamin — something occurring among many American children right now, partly because they don’t get out much — can make humans more susceptible to everything from heart disease to internal cancers.

10 Incredible Benefits of Bananas for Your Health and Beauty

You might snack on bananas for breakfast or on your way to a meeting because you know that they’re good for you. But bananas have loads more to offer you than just lowering your blood pressure and keeping your energy intact. Here are surprising things bananas can do for you nu skin hk.

1. They tenderize your meat dish.
Some tropical countries use banana leaves to wrap meat when it’s cooking so that it turns out nice and soft. But you can also use the actual banana during this process. Is your banana not ripe yet? No worries! You can still cook it with your meat. Not only is this a great way to make use of those green bananas in your fruit rack, but they’re also a great source of vitamins and fiber.

2. They give you gorgeous hair.
If you want to skip the chemicals that are found in store-bought hair products, make a banana hair mask. Bananas are great for your hair because they’re packed with nutrients that your hair needs to be healthy, such as B-vitamins and folate. When you add other hair-nourishing foods to them, you amplify the smoothing results. All you need for this recipe is a banana, whole milk and honey. After blending the ingredients, sit with it on your hair for about 20 minutes. The bonus? You can totally drink the rest of the mixture.

3. They make you glow.
Bananas are an easy way to make your face glow. Just mash one and apply it to your face nu skin
. Sit with it for 15 minutes then wash it off with cool water. Bananas are natural skin lighteners because they’ve got Vitamin A that erases discoloration and Vitamin E that provides protection against free radicals. Use bananas all over if you want to get rid of any discoloration before a special event like your wedding so that your gorgeous bridal jewelry will look even more radiant on you.

4. They provide you with probiotics.
Probiotics are essential to consume because they balance the bacteria in your gut, which prevents the overgrowth of unhealthy bacteria that leads to inflammation all over the body. Bananas are a natural source of probiotics because they contain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) that encourage healthy bacteria to flourish.

5. They zap anxiety.
Bananas are rich in potassium, which isn’t only good for lowering your blood pressure. This nutrient also helps to decrease stress levels and boost your mental performance. This is because it regulates stress hormones such as cortisol in the body. Now that’s a good reason to snack on a banana before your stressful work conference.

6. They boost your weight loss.
Bananas can help you lose weight because they’re a great substitute for high-calorie snacks. Since they’re sweet, bananas will satisfy your sugar cravings without the calories. One medium-sized banana only contains 105 calories. Added to this, bananas also rev up your metabolic rate because they contain chromium, a mineral that helps your body burn more calories.

7. They make you work out harder.
You might not realize that your body needs Vitamin C to ensure a more powerful gym session. This is because it makes your muscles, ligaments, and tendons stronger. Bananas are high in Vitamin C. Along with how bananas boost your energy, this makes them a great pre-workout snack.

8. They nourish your feet.
If you have cracked heels, banana can help to smooth your skin because it has moisturizing properties. Mash up the pulp of one banana and apply it to your dry feet. Sit with it for a while so that you give it a chance to be absorbed into your skin. Now you can wear those summer sandals with pride.

9. They deliver you to dreamland.
Forget counting sheep when you can’t get to sleep—eat bananas! They’re a good source of tryptophan, an amino acid that contributes to the production of serotonin in the brain. This hormone is a natural sedative, while it also busts a bad mood. Bite into a banana about an hour or so before bedtime so that your body can digest it and allow tryptophan to score you some Zzzzs.

10. They send migraines away.
The terrible pain of headaches and migraines can turn your day sour, but bananas are a food that can fight and prevent them. The reason for this is that they’re a good source of magnesium. The next time you feel a headache coming on, reach for a nutrient-packed banana.

Buy more bananas during your next trip to the grocery store and make use of all these interesting ways that they can heal you evenements industrie touristique.


Sida 1 av 2
1